Classification of Computer
|On the basis of||Size||Micro computers|
On the basis of Computer Sizes and Power
- Computers can be generally classified by size and power as- follows, though there is considerable
- Computer can be classified on the basic of size, cost, speed, functions and their applications are:
- Most powerful, fastest, largest and expensive computer in the world.
- A single bus structure is primarily found on super computer.
- A number of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor are used in super computer and its world length is 64 bit.
- They are the state-of-art machines designed to perform calculations as fast as the current technology allows.
- It is used to solve extremely complex and large scale problems, simulations of atomic explosions, aircraft design, movie animation, mathematical calculations or number crunching, satellite communication fluid dynamics, geological data, rocket launching in space.
- Other name of supercomputer is number crunching.
- It was developed by Cray in the year of 1976. Number of processor is 4-16.
- Multiple numbers of users.- > Clock speed is greater than 1000MHZ.
- Most expensive (tens of millions of dollars)
- The manufacturers of Supercomputers are: IBM, SILICON GRAPHICS, FUJSTU, INTEL, etc.
- These are the fastest as they employ 1000′s of processors,
- 100’s of GB of RAM, 1000’s of GB of secondary storage
- Used by governmental agencies and large international corporations.
- Examples: CRAY I/II/III, CYBER-205, HITACHI-810/20, CRAY-XMP AND NEC-500 are some popular super computers.
- Mainframe 1are computer that supports 100 or 1000 of user simultaneously.
- They are also called the “Enterprise Server”.
- Multiple numbers of users.
- Number of processor is 1-4.
- Clock speed is greater than 100MHZ.
- Process date at very high rate
- RAM capacity is 128MB to BGB
- They can run multiple operating systems. Hence they are called VIRTUAL MACHINES
- They handle a large amount of I/O devices which are arranged in separate CABINETS or FREMES hence the name.
- Less expensive than supercomputer
- Used for processing large amount of data, business and for soíentiño purpose.
- User work with terminal [An input/output device at which data enters or leaves a computer system] e.g. bank mainframe
- Generally consist of multiple processor, GB’s of memory and TB’S of storage
- Cost in millions of dollars.
- It was developed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in the year of 1951.
- Examples: ICL 2950110, IBM 1401, IBM 4381, ICL 39 series.
- The UNIVAC I mainframe computer was delivered to the Census Bureau.
- They are used in large financial transactions
- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
- Industry and consumer statistics
- These were introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) [first minicomputer 12 bit, PDP- 8] in 1960.
- Introduced by Kenneth H. Olsen in 1965
- They can process more data and can support more I/O devices
- They are less powerful than mainframe computers but more powerful than micro computers. Hence they are called MIDRANGE COMPUTERS.
- They cater to the needs of 4-200 users at a time
- They are used in business as a centralized computer or as an internet sewer
- They are less expensive than Mainframe Computers. Examples include PDP 11, IBM 8000 series, etc,
Depending on size, Microcomputers are of three types:
1. Desktop computers:
They are used in single location, cheap and have good storage. Examples include: Apple, IBM.
2. Laptop computers:
Portable computers also called as the notebook computers or mobile computers. They are smaller in size, more expensive and are rechargeable. Examples include Apple, Acer, and Hewlett Packard (HP)
3. Hand-held computers:
Also known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s), Palmtop or Mobile device, They are smaller in size, have smaller display and input device is generally an electronic stylus. Their storage capacity is small. Examples include Apple Newton, Franklin eBook man.
On the basis of working principle
- Analog computers → Measuring principle
- Digital computers → Counting principle
- Hybrid computers → (digital + analog) → both measuring and counting principles
- These are different from a digital computer because an analog computer can perform several mathematical operations simultaneously. It uses continuous variables for mathematical operations and utilizes mechanical or electrical energy. The computer which process analogue quantities (Continuous data) is called an analogue computer.
- These computers represent data in the form of continuous electrical signals and uses physical quantity like, electric current, voltage, temperature and pressure of a boiler system
- Based on analog mechanism
- An analog computer is the one that measures physical values such„ as: temperature. pressure, and speedometer, thermometer, Millimeter etc
- These are fast and multi-tasked.
- Results displayed by these computers are less accurate.
- Analogue computers are used in hospital to measure the size of stone in kidney and mental disease diagnostics (CT scan with photos).
- Powerful in solving differential equations.
- These computers use OP-AMP (Operational Amplifier).
- These are called the Digital information processing systems.
- Accuracy is higher than analog computer handles only discrete signal/data.
- The computers based on digits i.e., 0 and 1 are called digital computer.
- The computer that handles the discrete signal is called Digital Computer.
- Digital signal represents particular state that is: 0(low) or 1(high), yes or No, On or OFF, TRUE or False
- These systems store and process the data in digital] form (strings of 0′s and 1′s)
- They are capable of processing analog signals but the analog signals have to be converted into digital signals using an ADC before feeding into the digital computers.
Hybrid computer (digital +analog)
These Computers are a combination of both digital and analog computers.
- Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers.
- The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical operations, while the analog component normally serves as a solver of differential equations.
- The hybrid computers can transfer data from analog to digital and digital to analog.
- Used in industrial process control, jet plans, airplanes
- These computers are mainly used in hospital to measure the heart beat of patient.
|Computer name||Input||Output||Based on||Examples|
|Digital||On/off1/0||On/off1/0||Counting||General purpose PCs|
|Analog||Measure elements||Graph pictures||Continuous Measurements||Weather forecasting speedometer, ECG machines etc|
|Hybrid||Both 1/0 & Measure elements||Both on/off&Graphs||Counting and measurements||Controlling and monitoring plants. Petrol pumps, Modem, simulation, Industrial process, Jet plane etc.|
- Simulation: simulation is the process in which the computer system and program are used to produce.
On the basis of Brand
- IBM PC
- IBM compatible
IBM PC is a microcomputer produce by IMB Company. Dr. Herman horierith established IBM in 1923. It is a leading the market of mainframe and PC’s. It used the processors, multimedia devices and some other hardware’s parts, developed by some other companies like Intel. But use the principal of its own. So all the Computer developed by IBM Company is called IBM Computer.
- IBM compatible can use hardware and software designed for PC. The internal architecture of IBM compatible is similar to IBM PC. So they are called duplicate computers. Example Epson, Acer etc.
Apple Corporation was established in 1970 in USA. Its computer are called Apple/Macintosh (Mac) computer. The internal architecture of these computers is totally different form that of IBM. Therefore they need their own software.
On the basic of Model
- XT computer
- AT computer
- PS/2 computer
- XT (Extra Technology) computer are old technology computers with much slower processing speed (not more than 4.77 MHZ) Advance GUI based software like windows cannot be run in these computers. Everything was based on text based system. Serial number of processors was like 8080 and 8088, which were developed by Intel company are used. Complex calculation and large processing I/O devices were not and faster. It used 4 bits processor length.
- AT (Advanced Technology) computers are the new technology computers. They are faster in processing (more than 2 GHZ). It can run any type of software with high GUI and color. Serial number of process is 80286, 80386 and Pentium. Any type of complex and long processing can be done depending on the capacity of computers. I/O devices are interactive, flexible and faster. Word length exceeds 64 bits. Coprocessors can be used to help the main processors for complex mathematics.
- Actually, those are not totally different model of computer but are refinement of AT computers. These models were built after 1990’s and mostly used in laptop computers. Rechargeable and battery operational systems with faster flexible I/O devices are some important characterizes of these computers. OS2 operating system was used at the beginning but the now day’s widows operating system is in leading.
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